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Popova told him that he must do it himself. Soon after, Ivinskaya happened to be ill at Popova's apartment, when suddenly Zinaida Pasternak arrived and confronted her.
But I became so ill through loss of blood that she and Luisa had to get me to the hospital, and I no longer remember exactly what passed between me and this heavily built, strong-minded woman, who kept repeating how she didn't give a damn for our love and that, although she no longer loved [Boris Leonidovich] herself, she would not allow her family to be broken up.
After my return from the hospital, Boris came to visit me, as though nothing had happened, and touchingly made his peace with my mother, telling her how much he loved me.
By now she was pretty well used to these funny ways of his. In , Pasternak advised Ivinskaya to resign her job at Novy Mir , which was becoming extremely difficult due to their relationship.
In the aftermath, Pasternak began to instruct her in translating poetry. In time, they began to refer to her apartment on Potapov Street as, "Our Shop.
On the evening of 6 October , Ivinskaya was arrested at her apartment by the KGB. Ivinskaya relates in her memoirs that, when the agents burst into her apartment, she was at her typewriter working on translations of the Korean poet Won Tu-Son.
Her apartment was ransacked and all items connected with Pasternak were piled up in her presence.
Ivinskaya was taken to the Lubyanka Prison and repeatedly interrogated, where she refused to say anything incriminating about Pasternak. At the time, she was pregnant with Pasternak's child and had a miscarriage early in her ten-year sentence in the GULAG.
Upon learning of his mistress ' arrest, Pasternak telephoned Liuisa Popova and asked her to come at once to Gogol Boulevard.
She found him sitting on a bench near the Palace of Soviets Metro Station. Weeping, Pasternak told her, "Everything is finished now.
They've taken her away from me and I'll never see her again. It's like death, even worse. According to Ivinskaya, "After this, in conversation with people he scarcely knew, he always referred to Stalin as a 'murderer.
He worked intensively on the second part of Doctor Zhivago. In a letter to a friend in West Germany , Pasternak wrote, "She was put in jail on my account, as the person considered by the secret police to be closest to me, and they hoped that by means of a gruelling interrogation and threats they could extract enough evidence from her to put me on trial.
I owe my life, and the fact that they did not touch me in those years, to her heroism and endurance. Pasternak's translation of the first part of Faust led him to be attacked in the August edition of Novy Mir.
The critic accused Pasternak of distorting Goethe 's "progressive" meanings to support "the reactionary theory of 'pure art'", as well as introducing aesthetic and individualist values.
In a subsequent letter to the daughter of Marina Tsvetaeva, Pasternak explained that the attack was motivated by the fact that the supernatural elements of the play, which Novy Mir considered, "irrational," had been translated as Goethe had written them.
Pasternak further declared that, despite the attacks on his translation, his contract for the second part had not been revoked.
When Stalin died of a stroke on 5 March , Ivinskaya was still imprisoned in the Gulag , and Pasternak was in Moscow.
Across the nation, there were waves of panic, confusion, and public displays of grief. Pasternak wrote, "Men who are not free After her release, Pasternak's relationship with Ivinskaya picked up where it had left off.
Soon after he confided in her, "For so long we were ruled over by a madman and a murderer, and now by a fool and a pig.
The madman had his occasional flights of fancy, he had an intuitive feeling for certain things, despite his wild obscurantism. Now we are ruled over by mediocrities.
In conversation with Ivinskaya, Pasternak explained that the pig dictator Napoleon , in the novel, "vividly reminded" him of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.
Although it contains passages written in the s and s, Doctor Zhivago was not completed until Pasternak submitted the novel to Novy Mir , which refused publication due to its rejection of socialist realism.
Censors also regarded some passages as anti-Soviet , especially the novel's criticisms  of Stalinism , Collectivisation , the Great Purge , and the Gulag.
Pasternak's fortunes were soon to change, however. In March , the Italian Communist Party sent a journalist, Sergio D'Angelo , to work in the Soviet Union, and his status as a journalist as well as his membership in the Italian Communist Party allowed him to have access to various aspects of the cultural life in Moscow at the time.
A Milan publisher, the communist Giangiacomo Feltrinelli , had also given him a commission to find new works of Soviet literature that would be appealing to Western audiences, and upon learning of Doctor Zhivago' s existence, D'Angelo travelled immediately to Peredelkino and offered to submit Pasternak's novel to Feltrinelli's company for publication.
At first Pasternak was stunned. Then he brought the manuscript from his study and told D'Angelo with a laugh, "You are hereby invited to watch me face the firing squad.
According to Lazar Fleishman, Pasternak was aware that he was taking a huge risk. No Soviet author had attempted to deal with Western publishers since the s, when such behavior led the Soviet State to declare war on Boris Pilnyak and Evgeny Zamyatin.
Pasternak, however, believed that Feltrinelli's Communist affiliation would not only guarantee publication, but might even force the Soviet State to publish the novel in Russia.
In a rare moment of agreement, both Olga Ivinskaya and Zinaida Pasternak were horrified by the submission of Doctor Zhivago to a Western publishing house.
Pasternak, however, refused to change his mind and informed an emissary from Feltrinelli that he was prepared to undergo any sacrifice in order to see Doctor Zhivago published.
In , Feltrinelli announced that the novel would be published by his company. Despite repeated demands from visiting Soviet emissaries, Feltrinelli refused to cancel or delay publication.
According to Ivinskaya, "He did not believe that we would ever publish the manuscript here and felt he had no right to withhold a masterpiece from the world — this would be an even greater crime.
Helped considerably by the Soviet campaign against the novel as well as by the U. Central Intelligence Agency 's secret purchase of hundreds of copies of the book as it came off the presses around the world — see "Nobel Prize" section below , Doctor Zhivago became an instant sensation throughout the non-Communist world upon its release in November In the State of Israel , however, Pasternak's novel was sharply criticized for its assimilationist views towards the Jewish people.
When informed of this, Pasternak responded, "No matter. I am above race At the time, Pasternak had also been regularly attending Russian Orthodox Divine Liturgy.
Therefore, he believed that Soviet Jews converting to Christianity was preferable to assimilating into atheism and Stalinism. The first English translation of Doctor Zhivago was hastily produced by Max Hayward and Manya Harari in order to coincide with overwhelming public demand.
It was released in August , and remained the only edition available for more than fifty years. Between and , the English language edition spent 26 weeks at the top of The New York Times ' bestseller list.
Ivinskaya's daughter Irina circulated typed copies of the novel in Samizdat. Although no Soviet critics had read the banned novel, Doctor Zhivago was pilloried in the State-owned press.
Similar attacks led to a humorous Russian saying, "I haven't read Pasternak, but I condemn him". During the aftermath of the Second World War, Pasternak had composed a series of poems on Gospel themes.
According to Ivinskaya, Pasternak had regarded Stalin as a, "giant of the pre-Christian era. On 9 September , the Literary Gazette critic Viktor Pertsov retaliated by denouncing, "the decadent religious poetry of Pasternak, which reeks of mothballs from the Symbolist suitcase of —10 manufacture.
According to Ivinskaya, Pasternak continued to receive such letters for the remainder of his life. In a letter written to his sister Josephine, however, Pasternak recalled the words of his friend Ekaterina Krashennikova upon reading Doctor Zhivago.
She had said, "Don't forget yourself to the point of believing that it was you who wrote this work.
It was the Russian people and their sufferings who created it. Thank God for having expressed it through your pen. According to Yevgeni Borisovich Pasternak, "Rumors that Pasternak was to receive the Nobel Prize started right after the end of World War II.
According to the former Nobel Committee head Lars Gyllensten , his nomination was discussed every year from to , then again in it was finally awarded in Pasternak guessed at this from the growing waves of criticism in USSR.
Sometimes he had to justify his European fame: 'According to the Union of Soviet Writers, some literature circles of the West see unusual importance in my work, not matching its modesty and low productivity…'" .
Meanwhile, Pasternak wrote to Renate Schweitzer  and his sister, Lydia Pasternak Slater. Pasternak wrote that he was wracked with torments and anxieties at the thought of placing his loved ones in danger.
On 23 October , Boris Pasternak was announced as the winner of the Nobel Prize. The citation credited Pasternak's contribution to Russian lyric poetry and for his role in "continuing the great Russian epic tradition.
They were further ordered to join a "spontaneous" demonstration demanding Pasternak's exile from the Soviet Union. The anti-Pasternak campaign was organized in the worst Stalin tradition: denunciations in Pravda and other newspapers; publications of angry letters from, "ordinary Soviet workers," who had not read the book; hastily convened meetings of Pasternak's friends and colleagues, at which fine poets like Vladimir Soloukin , Leonid Martynov , and Boris Slutsky were forced to censure an author they respected.
Slutsky, who in his brutal prose-like poems had created an image for himself as a courageous soldier and truth-lover, was so tormented by his anti-Pasternak speech that he later went insane.
On October 29, , at the plenum of the Central Committee of the Young Communist League, dedicated to the Komsomol 's fortieth anniversary, its head, Vladimir Semichastny , attacked Pasternak before an audience of 14, people, including Khrushchev and other Party leaders.
Semishastny first called Pasternak, "a mangy sheep," who pleased the enemies of the Soviet Union with, "his slanderous so-called work.
News of that speech drove Pasternak to the brink of suicide. It has recently come to light that the real author of Semichastny's insults was Khrushchev, who had called the Komsomol leader the night before and dictated his lines about the mangy sheep and the pig, which Semichastny described as a, "typically Khrushchevian, deliberately crude, unceremoniously scolding.
Furthermore, Pasternak was informed that, if he traveled to Stockholm to collect his Nobel Medal, he would be refused re-entry to the Soviet Union.
As a result, Pasternak sent a second telegram to the Nobel Committee: "In view of the meaning given the award by the society in which I live, I must renounce this undeserved distinction which has been conferred on me.
Please do not take my voluntary renunciation amiss. There remains only for the Academy, however, to announce with regret that the presentation of the Prize cannot take place.
Despite his decision to decline the award, the Soviet Union of Writers continued to demonise Pasternak in the State-owned press.
Furthermore, he was threatened at the very least with formal exile to the West. In response, Pasternak wrote directly to Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev ,.
I am addressing you personally, the C. From Comrade Semichastny's speech I learn that the government, 'would not put any obstacles in the way of my departure from the U.
I am tied to Russia by birth, by my life and work. I cannot conceive of my destiny separate from Russia, or outside it.
Whatever my mistakes or failings, I could not imagine that I should find myself at the center of such a political campaign as has been worked up round my name in the West.
Once I was aware of this, I informed the Swedish Academy of my voluntary renunciation of the Nobel Prize. Departure beyond the borders of my country would for me be tantamount to death and I therefore request you not to take this extreme measure with me.
With my hand on my heart, I can say that I have done something for Soviet literature, and may still be of use to it. In The Oak and the Calf , Alexander Solzhenitsyn sharply criticized Pasternak, both for declining the Nobel Prize and for sending such a letter to Khrushchev.
In her own memoirs, Olga Ivinskaya blames herself for pressuring her lover into making both decisions. According to Yevgenii Pasternak, "She accused herself bitterly for persuading Pasternak to decline the Prize.
After all that had happened, open shadowing, friends turning away, Pasternak's suicidal condition at the time, one can On 31 October , the Union of Soviet Writers held a trial behind closed doors.
According to the meeting minutes, Pasternak was denounced as an internal White emigre and a Fascist fifth columnist.
Afterwards, the attendees announced that Pasternak had been expelled from the Union. They further signed a petition to the Politburo , demanding that Pasternak be stripped of his Soviet citizenship and exiled to, "his Capitalist paradise.
Yevgeny Yevtushenko did attend, but walked out in disgust. According to Yevgenii Pasternak, his father would have been exiled had it not been for Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru , who telephoned Khrushchev and threatened to organize a Committee for Pasternak's protection.
It is possible that the Nobel Prize prevented Pasternak's imprisonment due to the Soviet State's fear of international protests. Yevgenii Pasternak believes, however, that the resulting persecution fatally weakened his father's health.
Meanwhile, Bill Mauldin produced a cartoon about Pasternak that won the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning.
The cartoon depicts Pasternak as a GULAG inmate splitting trees in the snow, saying to another inmate: "I won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
What was your crime? Pasternak's post- Zhivago poetry probes the universal questions of love, immortality, and reconciliation with God. According to Ivinskaya, Pasternak continued to stick to his daily writing schedule even during the controversy over Doctor Zhivago.
In his work on Calderon, Pasternak received the discreet support of Nikolai Mikhailovich Liubimov, a senior figure in the Party's literary apparatus.
Ivinskaya describes Liubimov as, "a shrewd and enlightened person who understood very well that all the mudslinging and commotion over the novel would be forgotten, but that there would always be a Pasternak.
During the summer of , Pasternak began writing The Blind Beauty , a trilogy of stage plays set before and after Alexander II 's abolition of serfdom in Russia.
In an interview with Olga Carlisle from The Paris Review , Pasternak enthusiastically described the play's plot and characters.
He informed Olga Carlisle that, at the end of The Blind Beauty , he wished to depict "the birth of an enlightened and affluent middle class, open to occidental influences, progressive, intelligent, artistic".
Through many winters long completed! Each unrepeatable, unique, And each one countless times repeated. Of all these days, these only days, When one rejoiced in the impression That time had stopped, there grew in years An unforgettable succession.
Each one of them I can evoke. The year is to midwinter moving, The roofs are dripping, roads are soaked, And on the ice the sun is brooding.
Then lovers hastily are drawn To one another, vague and dreaming, And in the heat, upon a tree The sweating nesting-box is steaming.
And sleepy clock-hands laze away The clock-face wearily ascending. Eternal, endless is the day,.