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This appears to produce ground vibrations that are picked up by the female. In this dance, the male and female move backwards and forwards while facing each other, as the male searches for a suitable place to deposit his spermatophore.
The courtship ritual can involve several other behaviors such as a cheliceral kiss, in which the male and female grasp each other's mouth-parts, arbre droit "upright tree" where the partners elevate their posteriors and rub their tails together, and sexual stinging, in which the male stings the female in the chelae or mesosoma to subdue her.
The dance can last from a few minutes to several hours. When the male has located a suitably stable substrate, such as hard ground, agglomerated sand, rock, or tree bark, he deposits the spermatophore and guides the female over it.
This allows the spermatophore to enter her genital opercula, which triggers release of the sperm, thus fertilizing the female. A mating plug then forms in the female to prevent her from mating again before the young are born.
The male and female then abruptly separate. Gestation in scorpions can last for over a year in some species. In the apoikogenic system, which is mainly found in the Buthidae, embryos develop in yolk-rich eggs inside follicles.
The katoikogenic system is documented in Hemiscorpiidae, Scorpionidae and Diplocentridae, and involves the embryos developing in a diverticulum which has a teat-like structure for them to feed though.
Before giving birth, the female elevates the front of her body and positions her pedipalps and front legs under her to catch the young "birth basket".
The young emerge one by one from the genital opercula, expel the embryonic membrane, if any, and are placed on the mother's back where they remain until they have gone though at least one molt.
The period before the first molt is called the pro-juvenile stage; the young are unable to feed or sting, but have suckers on their tarsi, used to hold on to their mother.
This period lasts 5 to 25 days, depending on the species. The brood molt for the first time simultaneously in a process that lasts 6 to 8 hours, marking the beginning of the juvenile stage.
Juvenile stages or instars generally resemble smaller versions of adults, with fully developed pincers, hairs and stingers.
They are still soft and lack pigments, and thus continue to ride on their mother's back for protection.
They became harder and more pigmented over the next couple of days. They may leave their mother temporarily, returning when they sense potential danger.
Once the exoskeleton is fully hardened, the young can hunt prey on their own and may soon leave their mother.
Some species may live up to 25 years. Scorpions glow a vibrant blue-green when exposed to certain wavelengths ranges of ultraviolet light such as that produced by a black light , due to the presence of fluorescent chemicals in the cuticle.
One fluorescent component is beta-carboline. Accordingly, a hand-held ultraviolet lamp has long been a standard tool for nocturnal field surveys of these animals.
Fluorescence occurs as a result of sclerotisation and increases in intensity with each successive instar. Scorpion venom serves to kill or paralyze prey rapidly.
The stings of many species are uncomfortable, but only 25 species have venom that is deadly to humans. Those species belong to the family Buthidae, including Leiurus quinquestriatus , Hottentotta spp.
Cases of very high blood pressure are treated with medications that relieve anxiety and relax the blood vessels.
Antivenom is the specific treatment for scorpion envenomation combined with supportive measures including vasodilators in patients with cardiovascular toxic effects, and benzodiazepines when there is neuromuscular involvement.
Although rare, severe hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis to scorpion antivenin are possible. Scorpion stings are a public health problem, particularly in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, North Africa, the Middle East and India.
Around 1. Efforts are made to prevent envenomation and to control scorpion populations. Prevention encompasses personal activities such as checking shoes and clothes before putting them on, not walking in bare feet or sandals, and filling in holes and cracks where scorpions might nest.
Street lighting reduces scorpion activity. Control may involve the use of insecticides such as pyrethroids , or gathering scorpions manually with the help of ultraviolet lights.
Domestic predators of scorpions, such as chickens and turkeys, can help to reduce the risk to a household. Scorpion venom is a mixture of neurotoxins; most of these are peptides , chains of amino acids.
These channels are essential for nerve conduction , muscle contraction and many other biological processes. Some of these molecules may be useful in medical research and might lead to the development of new disease treatments.
Among their potential therapeutic uses are as analgesic, anti-cancer , antibacterial , antifungal , antiviral , antiparasitic , bradykinin -potentiating, and immunosuppressive drugs.
As of , no scorpion toxin-based drug is on sale, though chlorotoxin is being trialled for use against glioma , a brain cancer.
Scorpions are consumed in West Africa, Myanmar  and East Asia. Fried scorpion is traditionally eaten in Shandong , China. The stingers are typically not removed, since direct and sustained heat negates the harmful effects of the venom.
Scorpions are often kept as pets. They are relatively simple to keep, the main requirements being a secure enclosure such as a glass aquarium with a lockable lid, and the appropriate temperature and humidity for the chosen species, which typically means installing a heating mat and spraying regularly with a little water.
The substrate needs to resemble that of the species' natural environment, such as peat for forest species, or lateritic sand for burrowing desert species.
Scorpions in the genera Pandinus and Heterometrus are docile enough to handle. A large Pandinus may consume up to three crickets each week.
Cannibalism is more common in captivity than in the wild, and can be minimized by providing many small shelters within the enclosure, and ensuring there is plenty of prey.
The constellation Scorpius , depicted in Urania's Mirror as "Scorpio", London, c. A scorpion motif two types shown was often woven into Turkish kilim flatweave carpets, for protection from their sting.
The scorpion is a culturally significant animal, appearing as a motif in art, especially in Islamic art in the Middle East.
One of the earliest occurrences of the scorpion in culture is its inclusion, as Scorpio , in the 12 signs of the Zodiac by Babylonian astronomers during the Chaldean period.
This was then taken up by western astrology ; in astronomy the corresponding constellation is named Scorpius. Orion and the scorpion both became constellations; as enemies they were placed on opposite sides of the world, so when one rises in the sky, the other sets.
The fable of The Scorpion and the Frog has been interpreted as showing that vicious people cannot resist hurting others, even when it is not in their interests.
Since classical times , the scorpion with its powerful stinger has been used to provide a name for weapons. In the Roman army , the scorpio was a torsion siege engine used to shoot a projectile.
The scorpion has served as the name or symbol of products and brands including Italy's Abarth racing cars  and a Montesa scrambler motorcycle.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the arthropod. For the band, see Scorpions band. For other uses, see Scorpion disambiguation.
Order of arachnids. Main article: Taxonomy of scorpions. Koch , Family Buthidae C. Koch , spp. New World scorpions, membership under revision Family Euscorpiidae Laurie , spp.
New World scorpions Superfamily Iuroidea Thorell , Family Caraboctonidae Kraepelin , 23 spp. Southern hemisphere tropical and temperate scorpions Family Hemiscorpiidae Pocock , 16 spp.
This black emperor scorpion fluoresces light blue. Further information: Human uses of scorpions. Main article: Scorpionism.
Late period bronze figure of Isis- Serket. Similarly, arguments can be formed against use of the term abdomen, as the opisthosoma of all scorpions contains a heart and book lungs, organs atypical of an abdomen.
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German Die Moral der Fabel besagt: Manche Menschen handeln von Natur aus mörderisch und selbst-mörderisch zugleich.
English The moral of the fable says: Some people act naturally murderous and self-murderous at the same time.
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